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Cancer antigen 15-3 (CA 15-3) is a protein that is produced by normal breast cells. In many people with cancerous breast tumors, there is an increased production of CA 15-3 and the related cancer antigen 27.29. CA 15-3 does not cause cancer; rather, it is shed by the tumor cells and enters the blood. This test measures CA 15-3 in the blood.
Cancer antigen 19-9 (CA 19-9) is a protein that exists on the surface of certain cancer cells. CA 19-9 does not cause cancer; rather, it is shed by the tumor cells and can be detected by laboratory tests in blood and sometimes other body fluids. This test measures the level of CA19-9.
A urine calcium test is done to measure how much calcium is passed out of the body through urine. The test is also known as the urinary Ca+2 test. Elevated urine calcium is often a sign of an overactive parathyroid gland. Parathyroid hormone is produced in response to serum calcium levels.
Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein that is present in certain tissues of a developing baby (fetus). By the time a baby is born, it drops to a very low level. In adults, CEA is normally present at very low levels in the blood but may be elevated with certain types of cancer. This test measures the amount of CEA in the blood to help evaluate individuals diagnosed with cancer.
High-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol, HDL-C) is one of the classes of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol in the blood. It is considered to be beneficial because it removes excess cholesterol from tissues and carries it to the liver for removal. HDL cholesterol is often called "good" cholesterol. The test for HDL cholesterol measures the amount of HDL-C in blood.
Creatinine is a waste product produced by muscles from the breakdown of a compound called creatine. Creatinine is removed from the body by the kidneys, which filter almost all of it from the blood and release it into the urine. This test measures the amount of creatinine in the blood and/or urine.